Q: Are flames hot enough to have ionized gaseous components of sufficient density to be considered plasma? ¶
Q: Is flame very complex and involves typically a large number of chemical reactions and intermediate species? ¶
A: Yes, and most of them radicals.
Q: Is flame dependent on the type of fuel involved in the combustion? ¶
A: Yes, and as, for example, when a lighter is held to a candle.
Q: Are flames often red and produce the most smoke? ¶