Morphine FAQs:

Q: Is morphine a pain medication of the opiate type which is found naturally in a number of plants and animals?

A: Yes.

Q: Is morphine the principal alkaloid in raw opium and constitutes roughly 8–19% of opium by dry weight?

A: Yes, Some purpose-developed strains of poppy now produce opium that is up to 26% morphine by weight.

Q: Is morphine the most sought after prescription narcotic by heroin addicts when heroin is scarce, all other things being equal?

A: Yes, local conditions and user preference may cause hydromorphone, oxymorphone, high-dose oxycodone, or methadone as well as dextromoramide in specific instances such as 1970s Australia, to top that particular list.

Q: Was morphine more addictive than either alcohol or opium?

A: Yes, and its extensive use during the American Civil War allegedly resulted in over 400,000 sufferers from the "soldier's disease" of morphine addiction.

Q: Is morphine commonly treated with acetic anhydride and ignited to yield heroin?

A: Yes.

Q: Was morphine determined by 1925 by Robert Robinson?

A: Yes.

Q: Is morphine produced?

A: Yes.

Q: Is morphine listed as a Class A drug under the Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 and a Schedule 2 Controlled Drug under the Misuse of Drugs Regulations 2001?

A: Yes.

Q: Was morphine first isolated between 1803 and 1805 by Friedrich Sertürner?

A: Yes.

Q: Is morphine in the strictest schedule of controlled substances?

A: Yes, and based upon the December 1970 French controlled substances law.

Q: Is morphine sold under many trade names?

A: Yes.

Q: Is morphine a Schedule I drug under the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs?

A: Yes.

Q: Is morphine rarely produced from codeine found in over-the-counter cough and pain medicines?

A: Yes.

Q: Is morphine also available in a paste that is used in the production of heroin, which can be smoked by itself or turned to a soluble salt and injected?

A: Yes, the same goes for the penultimate products of the Kompot and black tar processes.

Q: Is morphine an endogenous opioid in humans that can be synthesized and released by white blood cells?

A: Yes.

Q: Is morphine metabolised primarily in the liver and approximately 87% of a dose of morphine is excreted in the urine within 72 hours of administration?

A: Yes.

Q: Is morphine used primarily to treat both acute and chronic severe pain?

A: Yes.

Q: Is morphine beneficial in reducing the symptom of shortness of breath due to both cancer and noncancer causes?

A: Yes.

Q: Is morphine obtained by harvesting and processing the fully mature dry seed pods with attached stalks?

A: Yes, and called poppy straw.

Q: Is morphine produced most predominantly early in the life cycle of the plant?

A: Yes.

Q: Is morphine detectable for 12–24 hours?

A: Yes.

Q: Is morphine particularly susceptible to abuse and addiction?

A: Yes.

Q: Is morphine approximately 120 minutes?

A: Yes, though there may be slight differences between men and women.

Q: Is morphine a benzylisoquinoline alkaloid with two additional ring closures?

A: Yes.

Q: Is morphine similarly scheduled to Germany's legal classification of the drug?

A: Yes.

Q: Is morphine cheap?

A: Yes, and people in poorer countries often do not have access to it.

Q: Is morphine either methadone or dextromoramide?

A: Yes.

Q: Is morphine classified as a Schedule II controlled substance under the Controlled Substances Act with a main Administrative Controlled Substances Code Number of ACSCN 9300?

A: Yes.

Q: Is morphine generally as hard or harder to divert than oxycodone in a lot of cases?

A: Yes, and morphine in any form is uncommon on the street, although ampoules and phials of morphine injection, pure pharmaceutical morphine powder, and soluble multi-purpose tablets are very popular where available.

Q: Was morphine more widely used after the invention of the hypodermic syringe in 1853–1855?

A: Yes.

Q: Is morphine classified as a Schedule I drug under the Controlled Drugs and Substances Act?

A: Yes.

Q: Is morphine a central nervous system depressant?

A: Yes.

Q: Is morphine generally 8–14% of the dry weight of opium, although specially bred cultivars reach 26% or produce little morphine at all?

A: Yes, The latter varieties, including the 'Przemko' and 'Norman' cultivars of the opium poppy, are used to produce two other alkaloids, thebaine and oripavine, which are used in the manufacture of semi-synthetic and synthetic opioids like oxycodone and etorphine and some other types of drugs.

Q: Is morphine a precursor in the manufacture in a large number of opioids such as dihydromorphine?

A: Yes, and hydromorphone, hydrocodone, and oxycodone as well as codeine, which itself has a large family of semi-synthetic derivatives.

Q: Is morphine the opioids morphine-N-oxide , which is a pharmaceutical that is no longer in common use?

A: Yes, and pseudomorphine, an alkaloid that exists in opium, form as degradation products of morphine.

Q: Was morphine the most commonly abused narcotic analgesic in the world until heroin was synthesized and came into use?

A: Yes.

Q: Is morphine a rapid-acting narcotic?

A: Yes, and it is known to bind very strongly to the μ-opioid receptors, and for this reason, it often has a higher incidence of euphoria/dysphoria, respiratory depression, sedation, pruritus, tolerance, and physical and psychological dependence when compared to other opioids at equianalgesic doses.

Q: Is morphine marketed under many different brand names in various parts of the world?

A: Yes.

Q: Is morphine a phenanthrene opioid receptor agonist – its main effect is binding to and activating the μ-opioid receptors in the central nervous system?

A: Yes.

Q: Is morphine effective in relieving cancer pain?

A: Yes.

Q: Is morphine subject to extensive first-pass metabolism?

A: Yes, and so, if taken orally, only 40–50% of the dose reaches the central nervous system.

Q: Is morphine the prototype narcotic drug and is the standard against which all other opioids are tested?

A: Yes.

Q: Is morphine frequently used for pain from myocardial infarction and during labour?

A: Yes.

Q: Is morphine also used in the past?

A: Yes, as was/is morphine valerate, the salt of the acid being the active principle of valerian.

Q: Is morphine a verkehrsfähiges und verschreibungsfähiges Betäubungsmittel listed under Anlage III of the Betäubungsmittelgesetz?

A: Yes.

Q: Is morphine used to make other opioids such as hydromorphone?

A: Yes, and oxycodone and heroin.

Q: Is morphine used, with the most common in current clinical use being the hydrochloride, sulfate, tartrate, and citrate?

A: Yes, less commonly methobromide, hydrobromide, hydroiodide, lactate, chloride, and bitartrate and the others listed below.

Q: Is morphine identical except the two acetyl groups increase the lipid solubility of the heroin molecule?

A: Yes, and causing heroin to cross the blood–brain barrier and enter the brain more rapidly in injection.

Q: Is morphine metabolized primarily into morphine-3-glucuronide and morphine-6-glucuronide via glucuronidation by phase II metabolism enzyme UDP-glucuronosyl transferase-2B7?

A: Yes, About 60% of morphine is converted to M3G, and 6–10% is converted to M6G.

Q: Is morphine devoid of narcotic effects?

A: Yes.

Q: Is morphine biosynthesized in the opium poppy from the tetrahydroisoquinoline reticuline?

A: Yes.

Q: Is morphine classified as a Schedule 8 drug under the variously titled State and Territory Poisons Acts?

A: Yes.

Q: Was morphine discovered as the first active alkaloid extracted from the opium poppy plant in December 1804 in Paderborn?

A: Yes, and Germany, by Friedrich Sertürner.

Q: Is morphine derived from the opium poppy by either the traditional method of gathering latex from the scored?

A: Yes, and unripe pods of the poppy, or processes using poppy straw, the dried pods and stems of the plant, the most widespread of which was invented in Hungary in 1925 and announced in 1930 by the chemist János Kabay.

Q: Is morphine to use chemical reactions to turn it into heroin or another stronger opioid?

A: Yes.

Q: Is morphine a highly addictive substance?

A: Yes.

Q: Is morphine clearly addictive?

A: Yes, and Western doctors believe it is worthwhile to use the drug and then wean the patient off when the treatment is over.

Q: Is morphine mediated primarily by μ-opioid receptors in the bowel?

A: Yes.

Q: Was morphine contraindicated in acute pancreatitis?

A: Yes, and a review of the literature shows no evidence for this.

Q: Is morphine one of the most euphoric of drugs on earth?

A: Yes, and via all but the IV route heroin and morphine cannot be distinguished according to studies because heroin is a prodrug for the delivery of systemic morphine.

Q: Is morphine classified as a List 1 drug under the Opium Law?

A: Yes.

Q: Is morphine also available as a slow-release formulation for opiate substitution therapy in Austria?

A: Yes, and Bulgaria, and Slovenia, for addicts who cannot tolerate either methadone or buprenorphine.

Q: Is morphine usually a very long and painful process?

A: Yes.

Q: Is morphine isolation from poppy straw of the opium poppy?

A: Yes.

Q: Is morphine detectable in trace steady-state concentrations?

A: Yes.

Q: Is morphine also a κ-opioid and δ-opioid receptor agonist?

A: Yes, and κ-opioid's action is associated with spinal analgesia, miosis and psychotomimetic effects.

Q: Is morphine the most abundant opiate found in opium?

A: Yes, and the dried latex extracted by shallowly scoring the unripe seedpods of the Papaver somniferum poppy.