Q: Are horse-flies found worldwide? ¶
A: Yes, and except for the polar regions, but they are absent from some islands such as Greenland, Iceland, and Hawaii.
Q: Are horse-flies often attacked by tiny parasitic wasps? ¶
A: Yes, and the larvae are consumed by birds as well as being paratised by tachinid flies, fungi and nematodes.
Q: Are horse-flies eaten by generalized predators such as birds? ¶
A: Yes, and some specialist predators, such as the horse guard wasp , also preferentially attack horse-flies, catching them to provision their nests.
Q: Are horse-flies difficult? ¶